The boundary between the State of Georgia and the Cherokee Nation established by the Treaty of Augusta, May 31, 1783, ran along here. The line ran "from the top of Currahee Mountain to the head, or source, of the most southern branch of the Oconee River, including all waters of the same." This boundary line was re-affirmed by the Treaty of Hopewell, Nov. 28, 1785. A line of felled trees marked the original boundary, which was at least twenty feet wide and became a sort of “No Man's Land”. Marker is on U.S. 441, 0.4 mile south of Little Nails Creek.
This line, sometimes called "The Four Mile Purchase Line," was the boundary between Georgia and the Cherokee Nation from 1804 to 1818. It was established when Georgia bought a four mile strip from the Indians so as to take in Wofford's Settlement on Nancytown Creek. James Blair was agent for the government, James Vann and Katahahee for the Cherokees. It formed the boundary between Jackson Co., and the Cherokees; later Franklin Co., and the Cherokees, and is now the line between Habersham and Banks Counties. Marker is on U.S. 441, 1/2 mile south of intersection with U.S. 23.
Rev. Moses Sanders, Thomas Maxwell, and Daniel White constituted the Line Baptist Church on September 13, 1802. This church was just over the line between Georgia and Cherokee lands. Meetings couldn't be held at night, because all white people had to be off Indian lands by sundown. Thirteen churches met here and formed the Tugalo Baptist Association in 1818. This association met here in 1822 and 1842. The Liberty Baptist Association was formed here in 1867. This building, about 70 years old, is the second one on this site. It has stood in Franklin, Habersham and Banks Counties. Marker is on U.S. 441 from Cornelia to Homer near Alto.
This battle was fought, Oct. 12, 1864, between Confederate troops and Union cavalry in the nearby mountain pass. A Confederate victory saved Habersham County from pillaging by Union troops and camp followers and also saved grain fields for Confederate troops. There was a (C) drill field near the site of the battle. Some historians have called this the "Battle of Currahee" because it was fought in sight of Currahee Mountain. Casualties were small and neighbors care for the wounded. Marker is on U.S. 441 at the road to Leatherwood Baptist Church near Alto.
Creek Baptist Church
Nails Creek Baptist Church, the first Baptist Church in Banks County, was established February 11, 1787. It was the Mother Church of Middle River, Grove Level and Indian Creek. Many descendants of its charter members are active in the work of the church. The first building burned in 1864 and was rebuilt in 1868. In 1881 a larger church was erected and that was replaced by the present brick structure in 1908. From 1836 to 1922 28 ministers filled the pulpit. Membership in 1922 was 457.
Marker is on GA 51, 2.3 miles east of junction with GA 184 from Homer to Carnesville.
Leatherwood Baptist Church was established in 1801 at Eastanollee in Franklin County. Many members moved near here, organized this church and named their church Eastanollee. Hudson Moss gave the land for the first church on this site. His granddaughter, wife of Thomas Scales Wells, pastor for many years, gave the land for the present church building. Many landowners and their slaves were members of the church. Near here is the site of the Battle of The Narrows and the Old Muster Ground.
Mareker is on Old Post Road between Cornelia and Carnesville near Baldwin.
Battleground and Line Bridge
Col. Elijah Clarke, distinguished Revolutionary soldier, in charge of American troops stationed on the mountain, fought a battle with the British and Indians in the valley across Broad River. The river, since straightened by a canal, then flowed by the foot of the mountain. The river bridge, known as the Line Bridge is on the survey line of the "Last Four Mile Purchase Tract" bought from the Cherokee Indians by the government. General Wofford and a party appointed by the State Legislature rode horseback to Washington to intercede with the government to buy this land. Marker is on GA 184 near the Middle Fork of Broad River near Baldwin.
Banks County was created by Act of Dec. 11, 1858 from Franklin and Habersham Counties. It was named for Dr. Richard Banks (1784-1850), whose reputation as physician and surgeon extended over north Ga. and S.C. Especially noted for treating Indians for smallpox, he practiced medicine in Gainesville from 1832 until his death. First officers of Banks County, commissioned March 19, 1859, were: William P. Richards, Sheriff; James Anderson, Clk. Sup. Ct.; William H. Means, Clk, Inf. Ct.; Archibald McDonald, Coroner; Pierce C. Key, Surveyor; Fountain C. Moss, Ord.; Thomas Ausburn, Tax Col; Elijah Owens, Tax Rec. Marker is at Courthouse in Homer.
In 1780 a group of people, Garrisons and Wilmonts, met on top of the hill behind the church, built a platform between two trees, and held a religious meeting. This small gathering, and the statement that it was pleasant to worship on the mountain, led to the building of the first Mt. Pleasant Church, a log structure. The present one, built in 1883, is on land given by John Wilmont. A large wooden arbor with small cabins around, used until 1885, was erected on the church grounds for annual camp meetings. Many outstanding people have gone out from this church-teachers, doctors, preachers, merchants, bankers, and nurses. Marker is on GA 51, at junction with GA 184 or GA 51 six miles northeast of Homer.
This County, created by Act of the Legislature Dec. 3, 1857, is named for William C. Dawson who died in 1856, having served in Congress from Dec. 1836 to Nov. 1842, and in the U. S. Senate from 1849 to 1855. He also commanded a brigade in the Creek Indian War of 1836. Among the first County Officers were: Sheriff Samuel R. Fendley, Ordinary Henry K. Mikel, Clerk of Superior Court Daniel P. Monroe, Clerk of Inferior Court John Matthews, Tax Receiver David H. Logan, Tax Collector John Bruce, Treasurer James B. Gordan, Surveyor Andrew I. Glenn and Coroner John W. Beck. Marker is at the Courthouse in Dawsonville.
This road is older than Elberton. Post Riders carried the mail was carried over the road before Falling Creek Church was built in 1788 and during Washington’s Administration. Later a stage coach ran between Elberton & Lexington three times a week, stopping at the old Globe Hotel which stood on the site of the present court house in Elberton. Stocks for local merchants were brought over this road until 1878 when the first railroad came to Elberton. With the coming of Rural Free Delivery Mr. Giles made the first delivery in Elbert County over this road on horseback. Marker is at Courthouse in Elberton.
Off this road lies the site of Heardmont, home of Governor Stephen Heard, 1740-1815, and “God’s Acre”, the family cemetery where he lies buried. A ten-acre park surrounding the site is owned and maintained by the Stephen Heard Chapter, D.A.R. A Virginian of Irish descent, Heard came to Georgia, establishing Heard’s Fort, now Washington, Ga., In 1773, and fighting with Gen. Elijah Clarke at the Battle of Kettle Creek where he was captured. As President of the Council, he was de facto Governor for a period in 1781. After moving to Heardmont he was one of three who selected the site of Elberton. Marker is on GA 72 southeast of Middleton near Heardmont.
Stephen Heard, Governor of Georgia in 1781, lawyer, planter, surveyor and soldier of the Revolution, lies buried in the family cemetery. With a price on his head he was captured by the British at the Battle of Kettle Creek and condemned to die. On the eve of his execution he was rescued by his servant Mammy Kate with the aid of her husband Daddy Jack, both of which lie buried near him. Heard’s home “heardmont” once stood nearby in the 10 acre park established by the Stephen Heard Chapter, D.A.R. Coming to Georgia from Virginia, Heard, an Irishman, established Heard’s Fort, now Washington, GA in 1773. Marker is at Heardmont.
Creek Baptist Church
Van’s Creek Baptist Church, was established early in 1785 by Rev. Dozier Thornton, Revolutionary soldier and Virginian, was named for an Indian convert, David Vann, famed Chief of the Cherokees. Though the 6th Baptist Church in Georgia, it is the oldest in continuous service. Rev. Thornton was its pastor for 43 years. Original members were Rev. Dozier Thornton, his wife Lucy Elizabeth Thornton, Elizabeth Thornton, William Arnold, first Deacon and Clerk. Susan Arnold, Nathan Morgan, Elizabeth Morgan, Thomas Gilbert, John White, and Milly White. Marker is at Ruckersville.
Bethlehem Methodist Church, second oldest Methodist Church in Georgia and formerly known as Thompson’s Meeting House, sponsored the First Methodist Annual Conference in Georgia, on April 9, 1788. Bishop Asbury and his party, delayed by weather and illness, held the meeting, scheduled for the church, in the home of Judge Charles Tait. Richard Ivey, Thomas Humphries, Moses Parks, Hope Hull, James Conner, Bennet Maxey, Isaac Smith, Matthew Harris, Reuben Ellis, John Mason attended the conference. Several Revolutionary soldiers are buried near the church. Marker is on GA 72 about 12 miles southeast of Elberton.
“The Point”, where early settlers crossed into Georgia, is eight miles east of here. As soon as this area was ceded, Governor Wright opened a post at the confluence of the Broad and Savannah Rivers, Known as Fort James. “The Point” became the gateway for settlers from Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina who registered there and secured their tracts of land. A land court at Dartmouth, which grew up around the fort, was held from September 1773 through June 1775 to open this section. In 1777 all this ceded land was, by the State Constitution created into Wilkes County. Marker is on GA 72 about one mile west of the Savannah River.
About a mile from here is the Stinchcomb Methodist Church, one of the first in this section of the state. On Dec. 30, 1794, Middleton Wood granted to Absalom Stinchcomb, John Gatewood and John Ham the “privilege to erect a meeting house on his land on waters of Dove Creek”. The first building was a log structure. By 1850's the church acquired surrounding property. The present building has been in continuous use for over 100 years. The sills are hand-hewn, 14 inches square. Among old graves in the churchyard cemetery is that of Dionysius Oliver, Revolutionary soldier. Marker is on GA 17 about four miles.
Near here on Watache (War Woman) Creek, in Revolutionary times, lived Nancy Morgan Hart, her husband, Benjamin, and their children. Six feet tall masculine in strength and courage, Nancy Hart was a staunch patriot, a deadly shot, a skilled doctor and a good neighbor. A spy for the colonists, she is credited with capturing several Tories. Later, with her son, John, and his family, she joined a wagon train to Henderson County, Kentucky, where she is buried. Hart County and the Nancy Hart Highway are named for her. A replica of her log home, with chimney stones from the original, is in the Nancy Hart State Park. Marker is on GA 17 about ten miles S. of Elberton.
In 1784, General George Matthews brought a number of Virginians and Carolinians, large tobacco planters, to settle this section. Dionysius Oliver laid out the town of Petersburg, on the site of the earlier settlement of Dartmouth, at the union of the Broad and Savannah Rivers, and built a large tobacco warehouse. Among the early settlers were Governor William Wyatt Bibb and Judge Charles Tait, who served together in the U.S. Senate (1813-17), the Shackford and other prominent Huguenot families. Both Petersburg and the old road from Petersburg to Augusta are now under water. Marker is on Peterburg Road near Hilly’s store not far from Savannah River.
In the late 1770's, a large caravan of Virginians, including a Methodist preacher, traveling south in search of a new home, settled in this neighborhood. In the company were the Adams, Alexander, Banks, Cunningham, Fleming, Anderson, Gaines, Johnson, Teasley, Tyner, Stower and Brown families. At once they built a place of worship with loopholes for defense against Indians. In the “Meeting House”, Bishop Francis Asbury, leader of early American Methodism, preached from time to time. His remark- “This is indeed cold water” - after drinking from the nearby spring gave the church its name. The second house of worship was of lumber sawed on Coldwater Creek by Ralph Gaines. The three Adams brothers - Hiram, James, and Lawrence - joined him in erecting the building. Destroyed by fire in 1883, it was replaced by an exceptionally beautiful rural church. The fourth building, started in 1947, was dedicated on August 29, 1947 by Reverend Horace, District Superintendent. Of ten memorial windows in the church, two are dedicated to Howell Gaines Adams and Nick Drewry Carpenter, who fell in battle in World War II. Marker is in northeast Elbert County, north of GA 82 and between Coldwater and Little Coldwater Creeks.
Creek Baptist Church
In 1788, Thomas Maxwell founded the Falling Creek Baptist Church. A Virginian, he was born September 8, 1742, and died December 12, 1837. Imprisoned a number of times for preaching the Baptist faith, he was able, once to convert the jailer and his family. According to tradition, he rubbed away part of his prominent nose by preaching through the bars of the jails, and was defended by Patrick Henry when jailed in Culpepper County, Va. In 1835 at Falling Creek Church the Sarepta Baptist Association voted to join the State Baptist Convention after 15 years of consideration. Marker is on GA 77 about three miles south of Elberton.
Rev. Daniel Tucker owned a large plantation on the Savannah River and is buried near his old hometown, “Point Lookout”, six miles from here. Born in Virginia, February 14, 1774, Daniel Tucker came here to take up a land grant. A revolutionary soldier, planter and minister, he owned and operated Tucker’s Ferry near his home. He died April 7, 1818 - but not “of a toothache in his heel”. Esteemed by his fellow planters, he was loved by the Negroes who composed the many verses of the famous ditty, “Old Dan Tucker”, a favorite song at corn shuckings and social gatherings. Marker is on GA 72 southeast of Middleton.
Created from Wilkes County by Act of December 10, 1790 Elbert County was settled in 1784 by General George Mathews and a group from Virginia and Carolina. Clark Hill Reservoir covers the site of Petersburg, the original settlement and third largest town in Georgia in its day. Nancy Hart, celebrated Revolutionary patriot, lived in this county. Elbert County was named for General Samuel Elbert, Revolutionary soldier and Governor of Georgia (1785-1786). A native of South Carolina and resident of Savannah, he was a member of the Council of Safety and fought at Savannah (1778) and Briar Creek (1779). On Jan. 20, 1791, the first session of Elbert County Superior Court was held at the home of Thos. A. Carter on Beaverdam Creek, some 5 miles NW of here. George Walton, Georgia Signer of the Declaration of Independence, was presiding judge. The Carter plantation house stands today. Nearby is the family cemetery. First officers of Elbert County were: Matthew Talbot, Clerk: Robert Middleton, Sheriff; Robert Cosby, Collector of Taxes; W. Higginbottom, Register of Probate; Thos. Burton, Receiver of Tax Returns; Richardson Hunt, Surveyor; and James Tate, Coroner. Marker is at Courthouse in Elberton.
of General Wiley Thompson
General Wiley Thompson, considered the ablest and most humane of the agents of the Seminole Indians of Florida, was ambushed and killed near the agency at Fort King, Florida, December 28, 1835, by Osceola and a band of warriors who opposed removal to the West. Some months later his body was brought to Elberton and reburied in the garden of his home, 4 blocks east of here (now Heard Street). Born in Virginia, September 25, 1781, General Thompson was reared in Elbert County. A militia officer in the War of 1812, in 1817 he was elected major general of the 4th Division of the Georgia militia. A State Senator from 1817 to 1819, General Thompson resigned and served on the commission to determine the boundary between Georgia and Florida. After serving six consecutives terms as a member of Congress where he supported President Jackson’s policy of Indian removal, he was appointed agent in September, 1833. Marker is at the Courthouse in Elberton.
The highway crossing east and west at this intersection is the Old Federal Road, first vehicular way and earliest postal route west of the Chattahoochee. Beginning to the east on the Hall-Jackson line, it linked Georgia and Tennessee across the Cherokee Nation. Rights to use the route were granted informally by the Indians in 1803 and formally in the 1805 Treaty of Tellico, Tennessee. Prior to that time the trace served as a trading path from Augusta to the Cherokees of northwest Georgia and southeast Tennessee. Marker is on U.S. 19 at Coal Mountain north of Cumming.
Forsyth County was created by Act of Dec. 3, 1832 from Cherokee County. It was named for Gov. John Forsyth (1780-1841), a native of Frederick Co., Va., a graduate of Princeton, and gifted Georgia lawyer. He was Attorney-General of Ga., Congressman, Senator, Minister to Spain, Governor, and Secretary of State under Presidents Jackson and Van Buren. First officers of Forsyth County, commissioned April 20, 1833, were: John Blaylock, Clerk of Superior Court; Thomas Burford, County Surveyor; Alston B. Wilborn, Coroner; Hubbard Barker was commissioned Sheriff, Jan. 31, 1834. Marker is at the Courthouse in Cumming.
The town of Cumming (incorporated 1834) was named in honor of Col. William Cumming, distinguished Georgian, born July 27, 1788, son of Thomas Cumming and Ann Clay, daughter of Joseph Clay, of Savannah. William Cumming graduated from the College of New Jersey at Princeton and studied law at Gould's Law School, Litchfield, Connecticut. The War of 1812 brought him military prominence. Captain of the Augusta Independent Blues in 1812, he was commissioned Major, USA, in 1813, and appointed Adjutant General of the Northern Army the following year with the rank of Colonel. In 1815, however, he resigned from the Army and the Board of War, on which he served. Although in 1818 he was appointed Quartermaster General of the Army by President Monroe, and, in 1847, Major General by President Polk, he declined both appointments and spent the remainder of his life in Augusta, where he died February 18, 1863. A series of duels in 1822 with Senator George McDuffie of South Carolina received nationwide attention and illuminated the larger political controversy between proponents of states' rights (Cumming) and those favoring a strong central government (McDuffie). (Courthouse-Cumming, Georgia.)
This County, created by Act. of the Legislature Feb. 25, 1784, is named for Benjamin Franklin, Revolutionary patriot and statesman. It was formed from lands obtained from the Indians by the Treaty of Augusta, 1783. Capt. James Terrell Of the Revolution was an early settler. Volunteers from Franklin Co. under Capt. Morris distinguished themselves at the Battle of Pea River Swamp, Mar. 25, 1837, in the Creek Indian War. The present County Site was established by Act of November 29, 1806, at Carnesville named for Thomas B. Carnes, member of the Third Congress, 1793-97. Marker is at the Courthouse in Carnesville.
This, the Franklin Methodist Church, erected in 1831, is one of the earliest permanent church buildings in this area. Constructed of 12x12 hand-hewn pine beams, the church has been extensively remodeled through the years except the steeple, which stands as first built. The slave balcony originally in this church, unlike most, was at the front behind the pulpit. Early members have told of Indians worshiping in this building in the days when the Indian population of this section was large. Among the leaders of the church 100 years ago were the Lane, Daniel, Hammond, McCutchen and Lipford families. Marker is in Franklin at the Church (Heard County).
Stewart D. Brown, Sr.
Dr. Brown (1881-1952), Royston native, after years of the best training, returned home to practice surgery, bringing modern techniques and ingenious methods. He served his townspeople unfailingly for 40 years, performing 35,000 operations. With no hospital facilities, he pioneered, traveling from house to house, accompanied by his trained help, for 14 years. His territory stretched to seventy-five miles or more. He then opened a small hospital of his own, soon outgrown. Also active in educational and civic affairs, he rendered a lasting service to his hometown. Marker is on U.S. 29 in Royston west of the business district.
Instituted in 1797, this church was named for the William Carroll family, among its first members. The present building, erected about 1835, was restored in 1951-52 under the leadership of Bishop John H. Baker. Rev. Nelson Osborn (1797-1873) was a life-long member and minister for many years. The renowned Bishop Francis Asbury wrote in his diary: "Friday, Nov. 21, 1799, we drove 16 miles to Carroll's Meeting House, a New Log Cabin in the Woods. Some of the People of the Congregation are from the East and West Parts of Maryland. I felt the Lord was with them. We have the Kitchen, House and Chamber all in one and no closet but the woods". Marker is 2.5 miles northwest (air line) of Canon.
Springs Methodist Camp Ground
Camp meetings have been held here each year, from 1832, except four years during the War Between the States. The 50-acre plot, "extending one-half mile in every direction from the preacher's stand", was purchased from Daniel and Jacob Groover for $25 by William Hammons, John F. Wilson, George Shell, John B. Wade, Dennis Phillips, Thomas King and Rev. Nelson Osborne, Trustees. The first meeting, August 1832, was held under a brush arbor with 30 tents on the ground. Women were seated on one side of the arbor: men on the other. John W. Osborne, appointed usher, served at every meeting until his death in 1914. Marker is about 2.5 miles south of preceding marker on the same road.
John Newton, a native of Pennsylvania organized the Hebron Presbyterian
Church was organized in 1796. Rev. Thomas Newton, a younger brother, was the
first pastor. First elders were John McEntire and Samuel Makie, natives of
Ireland, and Thomas Mayes and William Fleming, from Pennsylvania. Churches
organized out of Hebron were: Carnell (Homer), Mount Hermon (Ila), Harmony,
Hartwell, Carnesville, Mayesville, Commerce, Cornelia and Hopewell. Nine
ministers have gone out from this church. The work of the church is still
carried on by the descendents of its founders. The present building was erected
in 1884. Marker is on GA 59 near the Banks County Line - 2 miles from the
Branches Baptist Church
Constituted in 1801, this church has 19 charter members. First a member of the Sarepta Association, it was one of 13 churches to form the Tugalo Association in 1818. Some members came many miles in wagons and buggies to attend its services. Among the early pastors were John Sandridge, Francis Calloway, John A. Davis, Samuel B. Sanders, John G. York, and W. F. Bowers. Davis and Bowers "departed the Association because of ladies wearing jewelry and Free Masonry" to form the "Reformation Church", a short-lived group of churches in this area. This building was erected in 1911. Marker is about one mile northeast of preceding marker on the same road.
Springs Baptist Church
Established in 1805, Poplar Springs Baptist Church, "Mother Church" of the Tugalo Baptist Assn., began in May of that year. Some of the first members were Joseph Chandler, Thomas Wilkins, John Nail, John Mullins, and James Jackson. John Cleveland, Thomas Gilbert, Francis Calloway, Jr., were early pastors. Many landowners and slaves were members. The slave cemetery is to the right of the church on the Yow estate. On Sept. 12, 1818, delegates from 13 churches met here to form the Tugalo Baptist Assn. of the Southern Baptist Convention. The present auditorium was erected in 1873. The educational building was built in 1955. Marker is about 5 miles north of Lavonia on a road leading off Ga 59 one mile from Lavonia.
The historic Blair Line between the State of Georgia and the Cherokee Nation crossed this highway at this point. James Blair surveyed this line in the early 1800's. It ran from the forks of the Soque and Chattahoochee rivers in a direct northerly line to the Tallulah River. It was the boundary line established in 1817 for the purchase of all the lands east of the Chattahoochee River by the State of Georgia from the Cherokee Nation by the Treaty of 1818. Marker Number 068-1 Located - GA 115 at junction with GA 105.
This highway runs along the divide between the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. On the south the waters run into the Broad and Savannah rivers to the Atlantic Ocean. Waters on the north run into Chattahoochee and Apalachicola rivers and the Gulf of Mexico. This divide was formerly the boundary line between the Cherokee and Creek Nations and along this ridge ran the Indian War Trail from Cherokee settlements on the Upper Tugalo to what is now Atlanta. A branch went southeast into the Creek Nation. This trail was the route to "Chopped Oak" where the Indians once cut a gash in an oak tree for each scalp. Marker Number 068-2 is located on U.S. 23/U.S. 441, in Cornelia.
This battle was fought, Oct. 12, 1864, between Confederate troops and Union cavalry in the nearby mountain pass. A Confederate victory saved Habersham County from pillaging by Union troops and camp followers and also saved grain fields for Confederate troops. There was a Confederate drill field near the site of the battle. Some historians have called this the "Battle of Currahee" because it was fought in sight of Currahee Mountain. Casualties were small and neighbors cared for the wounded. Marker Number 006-3B Located - US 441 at the road to Leatherwood Baptist Church (S-0981) near Alto.
The Unicoi Turnpike, first vehicular route to connect North Georgia and Tennessee with the head of navigation on the Savannah River system, passed here. Beginning on the Tugalo River to the east of Toccoa, the road led this way, thence across Nacoochee Valley, over the Blue Ridge through Unicoi Gap and past Murphy, N.C., to Nine Mile Creek near Maryville, Tenn. Permission to open the route as a toll road was given by the Cherokees in 1813 to a Company of white men and Indians. Tennessee and Georgia granted charters to the concern. Prior to its opening as a road, the way was part of a trading path from Augusta to the Cherokees of Tennessee. Marker Number 068-4 is located on U.S. 23/U.S. 441, in Cornelia.
Iron Works & Manufacturing Co.
On the site of the Habersham Cotton Mills stood the Habersham Iron Works and Manufacturing Co., incorporated in late 1837 when this section of the state was Indian country. Jarvis Van Buren, a cousin of President Martin Van Buren, and a pioneer eastern railroad man, arrived in 1838 to operate the plant for its stockholders who included John C. Calhoun. In a region far from railroads necessary machines and supplies must have come by mule or ox wagon from Augusta. The iron mill operated for a few years, closed and reopened during the War Between the States when guns and cannon were urgently needed for the Confederacy. Marker Number 069-5 is located at the Habersham Mill in the village of Habersham.
Habersham County was created by Acts of the Legislature, Dec.15, 1818, and named for Joseph Habersham (1751-1815), of Savannah, who had a summer home near Clarkesville. He served in the Revolution as a Lieut. Col. in the GA. Continental line; was twice Speaker of the General Assembly; Mayor of Savannah, 1792-93; and Postmaster General of the United States, 1795-1801. The first Habersham County officers sworn in after the County was created were Miles Davis, Clerk of the Superior Court; Wm. B. Wofford, Sheriff; Joseph Dobson, Clerk of the Inferior Court; Wm. Steedly, Coroner; William Wofford, Sr., Surveyor. Benjamin Cleveland, Absalom Holcombe and James R. Wyly were sworn in as Members of the Inferior Court, Feb. 25, 1819, and Arthur Alexander succeeded Holcombe was succeeded on April 20, 1819. James Allen, Benjamin Chastain, Absalom Holcombe, John Kiser, Thomas Brock, James O'Neal, Joseph Whitehead and John Bryan were sworn in as Justices of the Peace in 1821. Cicero H. Sutton was the first Ordinary of Habersham County. Habersham County is noted for its healthful climate and beautiful scenery, its peaches and apples, and its fine schools. Marker Number 068-6 is located at the Courthouse in Clarkesville.
Home Of Joseph Habersham
This was the summer home of Joseph Habersham of Savannah, (1751 -1815), Georgia patriot, Revolutionary War hero, and political leader. He was a Colonel in the Continental Army, a member of Continental Congress, and of the Georgia Convention that ratified the Constitution in 1788. Educated at Princeton, he returned to Georgia to aid in organizing the "Liberty Boys" as the Revolution approached. With other patriots, he organized the Council of Safety at Tondee's Tavern, June 22, 1775. On January 17, 1776, leading a small group, he captured and placed under guard Sir James Wright, British Colonial Governor. With Captain Bowen, he commanded the first commissioned vessel of the Revolution. Twice Speaker of the General Assembly, in Georgia's first legislative body, in 1785, Joseph Habersham signed the first charter granted to a state university in American - that of the University of Georgia. He served as Postmaster General under Presidents Washington, Adams and Jefferson. From 1802 until his death he was president of the Georgia branch of the Bank of the United States. Habersham County, created December 19, 1818, was named for Joseph Habersham. Marker Number 068-7 is located on U.S. 23/U.S. 441, about 2.5 miles north of Clarkesville.
Protestant Episcopal Church
The first Episcopal service in Clarkesville was held Oct. 28, 1838 by the Rev. Mr. Ezra B. Kellogg sent from N.Y. to the Diocese of Georgia as a missionary to this section. On Dec. 12, 1838, at his home, Grace Church was organized for three local Episcopal families and the many coastal families of the denomination who spent their summers here. On April 15, 1839 this, the sixth, Episcopal Church in the State, was admitted to the Diocese. On June 7, 18391 James Brannon purchased this square acre lot was purchased for $100. For the first year services were held in the Methodist Church and Clarkesville Academy. In 1841, the Rev. J. B. Gallagher succeeded as Rector. Under his guidance, this building, begun in 1839, was completed in 1842. It was consecrated Oct. 6, 1842 by the Rt. Rev. Stephen Elliott, Jr., (first) Bishop of Georgia, who reported it as "a very neat wooden building, with tower and bell, prettily located, and an ornament to the village." Among prominent early members were: Richard W. Habersham, Sr., John R. Mathews, Wardens; Alexander Erwin, Benjamin F. Patton, George D. Phillips, John R. Stanford, Samuel A. Wales, John S. Dobbins, Dr. Phineas M. Kollock, Jacob Waldberg, Vestrymen; Richard W. Habersham, Jr., George R. Jessup, lay delegates to the convention that admitted this Church to the Diocese. Marker Number 068-8 is located at the Church in Clarkesville.
On this site Colonel S. A. Wales built a house in 1835. Robert A. Toombs (1810-1885), United States Congressman, Senator, and Secretary of State, of the Confederate States, purchased it in 1879 for a summer home. General Toombs sold the property to Judge Logan E. Bleckley (1827-1907) in 1884. The original house was destroyed by fire in 1897 and the present structure was built on the same site immediately thereafter. Judge Bleckley was Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Georgia 1875-1880, and was Chief Justice 1887-1894. Occasionally the other members of the Court met with Judge Bleckley at this place for conferences on its work. Judge Bleckley was a unique figure in Georgia's judicial history and was one of the most outstanding Chief Justices of the Supreme Court. He died at his residence here on March 7,1907. Marker Number 068-9 is located in Clarkesville on Jefferson Street just back of the Presbyterian Church.
Big Holly Cabin - This heart pine cabin is one of the few remaining examples of a single pen (room) cabin built when this was the Georgia mountain frontier. The hand-hewn logs are joined with full-dove tail corner notching and the logs are chinked on the interior with wooden battens. This type of cabin was once plentiful, but they usually evolved into double pen cabins or larger houses with frame additions. In 1820, Haywood English built a log house on unclaimed Land Lot 85, District 11, near the Chattahoochee River. In 1841, the original lottery recipient of this lot belately laid claim to it. In a series of legal actions, which eventually ended in the Georgia Supreme Court, English lost his plea of "sitters rights" and moved to this location. Family legend contents this to be the same log house initially built on Land Lot 85 in 1820, and moved to this location in 1849. The cabin was restored by a descendent of the English family in 1986-87. Marker Number 068-10 was located SR 115, three miles west of Clarkesville. Cabin was moved to Welcome Center in Clarkesville.
And Learning In The Mountains
Three local citizens, W. M. Loggans, B.B. Heyward & W.P. Furr, donated 300 acres of prime farm land to entice location of the Ninth District School of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, a boarding high school on this site. Since 1906, thousands have come here to learn a wide range of subjects. Here they made new friends, formed lifelong relationships and prepared for good livelihoods. "The A&M School" operated until 1933; closing due to the Great Depression. Habersham School Supt. Claude Purcell purchased the site from the state for a dollar and due to his foresight and with the support of President Roosevelt's National Youth Administration, Habersham College opened in 1938. The coeducational vocational school closed when the NYA lost funding in 1943, in the midst of World War II. In 1943, Georgia's Legislature created the Vocational Division of the Dept. of Education, which used the assets of Habersham College to open the first state-operated technical school, North Georgia Trade and Vocational School. In 1985, NGTVS became a part of the new State Board of Technical and Adult Education and today the name is North Georgia Technical Institute. Citizens continue to come here to live and learn before seeking success in the working world. Marker Number 068-11 is located at entrance to North Georgia Technical Institute, SR 197 2 1/2 miles north of Clarkesville.
Piedmont College is an accredited, independent, co-educational liberal arts college, open to all regardless of race, sex, or creed. Founded under auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Church, the College was chartered September 6, 1897 by Habersham County as the J. S. Green Collegiate Institute, and renamed J. S. Green College in 1899. The founder and first president, Charles C. Spence, was a Methodist minister and educator. In 1902, The Congregational Christian Church, the church of the pilgrims, assumed sponsorship and in 1903 changed the name to Piedmont College. Since that year, the college has maintained a close relationship with Congregational churches across the nation. Piedmont has made significant contributions to education on a regional, state, and national level. Graduates of the college have gone on to serve as teachers at all levels throughout the state, superintendents of many Georgia school systems, state Superintendent of Schools during the initial integration of public schools, presidents of five major universities, and state and national senators and representatives whose interest and work centered on education. Marker Number 068-12 is located on U.S. 441 at the college gate in Demorest.
Lt Gen. James Longstreet
This was the post-war home of General Longstreet, whom General Lee called his "Old War Horse." Born in South Carolina January 8, 1821, Longstreet grew up at Augusta. The family moved to Alabama, and he entered West Point from that state, graduating in 1842. He played a gallant role in the Mexican War, and in 1861 resigned from the United States Army to serve the Southern Confederacy. Under Lee his capable performance of duty caused Longstreet's rapid promotion to Lieutenant General. President Ulysses S. Grant, who had married Longstreet's cousin, Julia Dent, made him Surveyor of Customs at New Orleans. He also served as Supervisor of Internal Revenue, Postmaster at Gainesville, U.S. Minister to Turkey, United States Marshall and United States Railway Commissioner. He married first Maria Louise Garland of Virginia on March 8, 1848; second Helen Dortch of Atlanta, September 8, 1897. He died January 2, 1904. Marker is at the Courthouse in Gainesville.
Lyman Hall (1725-90), one of three Georgia signers of the Declaration of Independence, was born in Connecticut but moved to Georgia when young. Member of the Savannah Conventions 1774-75, and very influential in Georgia's joining in American Revolution; served in Colonial Congress from Parish of St. John 1775-80. When British seized Georgia and confiscated his property, he and his family made refuge in the north until 1782, when he returned to Georgia, and served one term as Governor of the State. He is buried under the Signers Monument in Augusta. Hall County (1818) was named for him. Marker is at the Courthouse in Gainesville.
Old Federal Road
The route leading west from this point is the Old Federal Road, an early thoroughfare, which linked Georgia and Tennessee across the Cherokee Nation. Rights to open the passage were granted informally by the Indians in 1803 and confirmed by treaty in 1805. Beginning 10 miles to the east, on the former Cherokee boundary, now the Hall-Jackson county line, the road crossed the Chattahoochee 4 miles to the west at Vann's Ferry and bore northwestward. This highway was the first vehicular and emigrant route of northwest Georgia. Andrew Jackson passed here in 1818 while on route to the Seminole Campaign. Marker is on U.S. 23, one mile northeast of Flowery Branch.
Co. D. 27th Ga. Inf., Colquitt's Brig., CSA, organized here in early 1861, fought at Williamsburg, Seven Pines, Seven Days Battles. At South Mountain, Md., Sept. 14, 1862, against great odds, men of this Co. withstood four attacks by a heavy force of Federals, in a great display of bravery. Later, they fought at Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, and Charleston. At Olustee, Fla., Feb. 20, 1864, they helped drive the Federals from Fla. Until Lee's arrival, they helped hold in check Grant's army at Petersburg, Virginia. They fought last at Bentonville, N. C., and surrendered on April 26, 1865 at Durham, N. C. Marker is at Redwine Church south of Gainesville.
Jackson at Young's Tavern
At Young's Tavern, 12-room log home of Robert Young-where travelers frequently stopped for lodging, Andrew Jackson, his staff and two companies of militia, spent a night on their way to the Seminole Campaign in 1818. General Jackson followed the road through Monticello and Hawkinsville, while the main body of troops went to South Georgia by way of Alabama. This was on the Federal Road, first vehicular way in northwest Georgia, opened in 1805. Robert Young, born in North Carolina in 1760, son of a Revolutionary soldier, had a 1,600-acre farm here and was a leading pioneer citizen of this section. Marker is on U.S. 23 about 2.2 miles northeast of Flowery Branch.
Joseph A. Parker founded Parkertown in 1832 in what was then Franklin County but now Hart County, by Joseph A. Parker. Parker was born in Virginia in 1774 and moved to Elbert County, Georgia in 1796. He later moved to Big Shoal Creek where Jacob Parker & Co. founded by his sons built what is said to have been the first woolen mill in Georgia on the upper shoal. At the lower shoal they constructed a dam and a flour and gristmill together with a cotton gin and a thresher. Marker is in the north part of Hart County between GA 59 and Shoal Creek.
Redwine Church was apparently founded prior to 1800 & named after Jacob R. Redwine, Revolutionary soldier born in Pa. who moved here from N. C. This is the 4th church, built in 1906. The first was a log cabin several hundred yards west near the old cemetery in which lies Maj. Nathaniel Durkee, hero of the Revolutionary Battle of Kettle Creek. Lorenzo Dow, noted Methodist preacher, once spoke here. Laid in & about this church are many scenes in "The Circuit Rider's Wife" by Cora Harris, wife of Rev. Lundy Harris who was preacher here in 1887 when he married. Marker is on a country road northeast of Royston.
"Center of the World"
This was Ah-Yeh-Li A-Lo-Hee, the Center of the World, to the Cherokee Indians. To this assembly ground, from which trails radiate in many directions, they came to hold their councils, to dance and worship which were to them related functions, and to barter their hides, furs and blankets for the trade goods of the white men from Augusta and other settlements. At one time there was a move to establish here the Hart County seat. This site was also a noted roost in the days when the now extinct passenger pigeons migrated here in the autumn in such numbers that "their weight broke the tree limbs." Marker is on U.S. 29, 2.9 miles from the Courthouse in Hartwell.
Hart County was created by the Legislature on Dec. 7, 1853 out of portions of Franklin and Elbert Counties. It is the only county in Georgia named for a woman- Nancy Hart. Nancy Hart and her husband, Benjamin Hart, obtained a 400-acre grant 25 miles SE from Hartwell in Colonial days and erected a log cabin home. During the Revolutionary War six Tories forced their way into the Hart home and demanded that Nancy cook a meal for them. She started cooking an old turkey, meanwhile sending her daughter to the spring to blow a conch shell for help. Detected slipping the third Tory rifle through a crack in the wall, Nancy killed one of the Tories and wounded another. Hart and several neighbors, coming to her rescue, wanted to shoot the five surviving Tories but Nancy insisted that they be hanged, and they were. Tradition has it that Nancy Hart served as a spy for Gen. Elijah Clarke, sometimes disguised as a man. The Indians respectfully called Nancy Hart, "War Woman," giving that name to a creek adjacent to her cabin, which is memorialized in a State Park on State Highway Route 17. Hart County's first officers elected in Feb. 1854 were Inferior Court Justices Henry F. Chandler, Micajah Carter, Clayton S. Webb, Daniel M. Johnson, James V. Richardson; Inferior Court Clerk Frederick C. Stephenson, Ordinary James T. Jones, Superior Court Clerk Burrell Mitchell, Sheriff William Myers, Tax Receiver W. C. Davis, Tax Collector Richard Shirley, Surveyor John A. Cameron, Coroner Richard Skelton and Treasurer Samuel White. Marker is at the Courthouse in Hartwell.
This County, created by Act of the Legislature, February 11, 1796, is named for James Jackson who later became Governor in 1798-1801. A soldier of the Revolution he served in Congress 1789-1791 and in the Senate 1793-95 and 1801-06. He strongly opposed the Yazoo Fraud, and died in 1806. Dr. Crawford W. Long first used ether as an anesthetic in surgery here in Jefferson on March 30, 1842. Among the first County Officers were: Sheriff John Hart, Clerk of Superior Court George Taylor, Clerk of Inferior Court Daniel W. Easley, Coroner Isham Williams and Surveyor James Harper. Marker at the Courthouse in Jefferson.
The Jackson County Courthouse, located in Jefferson, the County Seat, is one of the Georgia's' oldest courthouses still serving its original purpose. Built in 1879 for $11,500, it was designed by Athens architect W.W. Thomas in the Italianate style. The Neo-Classical clock tower was added in 1906. Modern-day renovations have little changed the interior. In 1980, the Jackson County Courthouse was listed in the National Register of Historic Places.
Crawford W. Long Museum
One of the Jefferson's most notable residents was Dr. Crawford W. Long. This Georgia native was the first to discover the use of ether as an anesthetic and performed the first painless operation on March 30, 1842. A museum stands on the site of his office in downtown Jefferson and includes changing exhibits on the History of Jackson County, a recreated 1840's Doctors Office an Apothecary Shop, and 19th century General Store. The headquarters for the Jackson County Historical Society is located here, and their genealogy and local history materials are shelved in the Museum's Library and Archives.
Commerce City Hall
The Commerce City Hall is a colonial revival style building constructed in 1936 by E.M. Williams of Monroe, Georgia for use as the city's post office. Brick exterior with marble trim, the post office was the original home of a Phillip Guston painting which is now housed in the new United States post office at the corner of Pine and Little Streets in Commerce. The building was purchased by the City of Commerce for its new city hall in 1997 and has recently been renovated for that purpose.
Calhoun Gold Mine
Famous Calhoun gold mine where it is said vein gold was first discovered in Georgia by white men. In 1828 while deer hunting, Benjamin Parks, of Dahlonega, accidentally found quartz gold in pockets of lodes. His find was so rich in gold that it was yellow like yolk of eggs. Shortly after discovery this mine was sold to U.S. Senator John C. Calhoun, of South Carolina. Thomas G. Clemson, son-in-law of Calhoun operated the mine and some of the gold was used to found Clemson College, S. C. Specimens from this mine are exhibited at the State Capitol in Atlanta. Marker Number 093-1 Located - GA 60, 3.7 miles south of Dahlonega.
Many famous gold mines of the Dahlonega era were along this ridge on both sides of this highway. The saprolite and vein gold mining operations along here contributed much to the $35,000,000 in gold taken from this district. Surface and underground mining began here with the discovery of rich gold shoots. This occurred near the close of the placer mining period during which much gold was recovered by working rich gravels along the streams with so-called "Dahlonega method." Canal conducted water from the headwaters of Yahoola Creek. The many huge cuts observable along this ridge were made by this method of mining. Marker Number 093-2 is located on GA 60 on the south edge of Dahlonega.
This pile of stones marks the grave of a Cherokee princess, Trahlyta. According to legend her tribe, living on Cedar Mountain north of here, knew the secret of the magic springs of eternal youth from the Witch of Cedar Mountain. Trahlyta, kidnapped by a rejected suitor, Wahsega, was taken far away and lost her beauty. As she was dying, Wahsega promised to bury her near her home and the magic springs. Custom arose among the Indians and later the Whites to drop stones, one for each passerby, on her grave for good fortune. The magic springs, now known as Porter Springs, lie 3/4 mile northeast of here. Marker Number 093-3 is located on U.S. 19 north of Dahlonega.
Consolidated Gold Mine
One mile southeast of here, from 1900 to 1906, the Dahlonega Consolidated Mining Company operated what is considered the largest gold plant ever constructed east of the Mississippi River. Capitalized at $5,000,000, the plant included a 120-stamp mill, a large chlorinator, a 550-foot tunnel and numerous small buildings. The Consolidated Mining Company furnished much of the setting for one of the earliest moving picture westerns, "The Plunderer," starring William Farnum. The film was made in Dahlonega and its environs before the first World War. Marker Number 093-4 is located on GA 52 in Dahlonega.
Auraria (Gold), in 1832 the scene of Georgia's first gold rush, was named by John C. Calhoun, owner of a nearby mine worked by Calhoun slaves. Auraria and Dahlonega were the two real gold towns in the U.S. before 1849. Between 1829 and 1839 about $20,000,000 in gold was mined in Georgia's Cherokee country. From Auraria in 1858 the "Russell boys," led by Green Russell, went west and established another Auraria near the mouth of Cherry Creek that later became Denver Colo. Green Russell uncovered a fabulous lode called Russell Gulch near which was built Central City Colo., “richest square mile on earth.” Marker Number 093-5 is located on GA 9 East, 4 miles south of junction with U.S. 19 south of Dahlonega.
This is the site of one of the forts or stations used by the United States Government in Cherokee country in 1838 to round up the Cherokee Indians for their removal to western reservations. General Winfield Scott commander of the troops used to assemble and protect the Indians in that period, had his headquarters here at one time. It is believed that Federal troops also used this station as early as 1830 to guard the gold mines from intruders - Indians or Whites - until the question of ownership of the territory was established. Marker Number 093-6 is located on GA 9 East north of Auraria.
Gold Diggers' Road
This section of highway was once a part of the "Gold Diggers' Road," one of the earliest ways used in reaching this area during the Gold Rush days. Beginning on the Chestatee River to the west, where it connected with a route coming from South Carolina via Toccoa, Clarkesville and Cleveland, the Gold Diggers' Road led here; thence southward, along U. S. 19 to Dahlonega, and from there to Auraria. Much of its original course is now abandoned. Marker Number 093-7 is located on U.S. 19 (GA 9) 2 3/4 miles northeast from Dahlonega.
Dahlonega Mustering Grounds
During the War Between the States nine companies were organized on this site; five were mustered here in 1861, two in 1862 and two in 1864. Men from other north Georgia counties came to Dahlonega to be mustered here in the companies of Lumpkin County. Most of these were from White, Dawson and Floyd Counties. The old mustering grounds were the rallying point for troops in other periods of national and state crises. Lumpkin County men met here to join Texans fighting for independence in 1836, to aid U S. troops in removing the Cherokees in 1838, and to wage war against Mexico in 1846-1848. Marker Number 093-8 is located on mustering grounds located on U.S. 19 North, two blocks from Dahlonega public square.
Price Memorial Building
Erected here in 1837 was a U. S. Branch Mint, which operated until seized by the Confederates in 1861. It produced gold coins estimated to exceed $6,000,000.00 in value. In 1871 the mint building and ten acres of land were transferred to the state for use as an agricultural college, largely through the efforts in Congress of Representative William Pierce Price, founder of North Georgia College and President of its Board of Trustees until his death in 1908. The mint building was destroyed by fire in 1878 and in the following year a second building was constructed on the old foundation walls. The new structure came to serve as the college administration building and in 1934 by action of the state Board of Regents was named the Price Memorial Building to honor the founder. Leafing of the steeple with gold from the surrounding hills was sponsored by the Dahlonega Club to commemorate in 1973 the 100th anniversary of the college. Marker Number 093-9 is located at the main entrance off U.S. 19 behind the flowerbed approaching Price Hall on the North Georgia Campus.
This County, created by Act of the Legislature December 5, 1811, is named for James Madison, Virginia Democrat, fourth President of the United States, 1809-17. The site for Danielsville was given by Gen. Allen Daniel of Revolutionary fame. In this town was born Dr. Crawford W. Long who first used ether in a surgical operation. Among the first County Officers were: Sheriff Nathan Williford, Clerk of Superior Court James Long, Clerk of Inferior Court Samuel Williford, Tax Receiver Britton Sanders Jr., Tax Collector James Ware Jr., Coroner William Hodge and Surveyor Edward Ware Jr. (At the Courthouse in Danielsville.)
Crawford Long Birth Site
Dr. Crawford W. Long who first used ether as an anesthetic, in a surgical operation at Jefferson, Georgia, March 30, 1842, was born in a house that stands about 1 block from here. Dr. Long, born November 1, 1815, was barely 27 when he performed the famous operation on James Venable to remove a neck tumor. He attended Franklin College (U. of Ga.) obtaining his M.A. at 19. He roomed with "Little Alec" Stephens, future Vice President of the Confederacy. He received his M.D. at University of Pennsylvania in 1839 and moved to Jefferson in 1841. He died June 16, 1878 and is buried in Athens. Marker is at the Courthouse in Danielsville.
This County created by Act of the Legislature Dec. 21, 1819, is named for William Rabun, 11th Governor of Georgia who was elected in 1817 and died in 1819. Self-educated by reading he served as a member of the legislature and as President of the Senate. Here now is located the famous Rabun Gap-Nacoochee School for the education of entire families. Among the first County Officers were: Justices of the Inferior Court Edward Coffee, John McClure, Samuel Farris, William Kelly, William Gillespie, Andrew Miller, James Dillard, and Clerk Thomas Kelly.
Memorial Lands And Cottages:
Georgia Division UDC.
The Georgia Division UDC has contributed 115 acres of land and four cottages to the farm family program of the Rabun Gap-Nacoochee School. Mill Mildred Rutherford first proposed the plan in 1905. Francis S. Bartow Cottage, built in 1938 was named for Francis S. Bartow, the first Confederate General to be killed in the War Between the States World War I Memorial Cottage was built in 1939. Alice Baxter Cottage, built in 1951 was named for Miss Baxter for her outstanding service as sixth president of the Georgia Division UDC World War II Memorial Cottage was erected in 1954.
Rabun Gap-Nacoochee School
Andrew Jackson Ritchie, Founder, 1868-1948
One of Rabun County's first college graduates, Andrew Jackson Ritchie received his B.A. and M.A. degrees from Harvard University before returning to his native county to devote his life to the education of the mountain people. In 1903 he founded the Rabun Gap Industrial School and in 1917 originated the "Farm Family Plan", by which entire families work their way through school. The school operated independently until 1926 when it merged with the Nacoochee Institute, a school owned and supported by the Presbyterian Synod of Georgia. Under Dr. Ritchie's presidency, the new school, chartered in 1927 and named Rabun Gap-Nacoochee, acquired more land, larger dormitories and classrooms, and began new educational programs. Dr. Ritchie, whose unique approach to education has attracted strong financial support, served as President of the school until his retirement in 1939. In 1948, the year of his death, his "Sketches of Rabun County History" was published. Dr. Ritchie, educator, scholar, and historian, is buried on the hill overlooking this school, which his complete devotion created.
Colonel Robert Sink Memorial Trail,
In memory of "Col. Bob" Sink, First Commanding Officer of The 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment. July 1942 - December 1945. Dedicated by the "Five-O-Sinks", The 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment Association, November 4, 2000 at Toccoa, Georgia. Duty-Honor-Country. Robert F. Sink, Lt. General U.S. Army. April 2, 1905 - December 13, 1965. "Currahee" "We Stand Alone". This is the trail the paratroopers ran during their training at Camp Toccoa during World War II. Located approximately .6 miles from downtown Toccoa - West on Currahee Street (GA 17, GA 184, GA 365) to Jeanette Jamieson Intersection of Highway 17 - go through the intersection on GA 184 and Dick's Hill Parkway. Continue straight ahead on Dick's Hill Parkway 2.8 miles, the marker is on the left (southside) at the intersection of the Col. Robert Sink Memorial Trail (formerly Currahee Mountain Road).
Eastanollee Baptist Church
One of the oldest churches in the Tugalo Baptist Association, this church was established in 1801 as Leatherwood Baptist Church on John Stonecypher property. Later, members moving to Habersham County established Leatherwood Baptist Church there. The members here continued meeting until September 8, 1810 when it was constituted as Eastanollee Baptist Church with a membership of 118. Nancy Meeks was first pastor. Others were Francis Calloway, Lewis Ballard, Matthew Vandiver, John A. Davis, Barwick Chambers, David Simmons, John G. York, Marlon Sewell, William Kelly, William Morton. T.G. Underwood, H.M. Baron, E.L. Sisk, Thomas Burgess, Jesse Brown, J.F. Goode, L.B. Norton, T.J. Stoncypher, J. Fulbright, W.W. Stowe, J.P. Dendy and S.E. Macomson. The present building was dedicated in 1946 under the leadership of Ben f. Turner who was pastor from 1934 till 1959. Located 5.6 miles south of Toccoa on east side of intersection of GA Highway 17 & Scott Road.
George Washington Hitt
1913-1958 Artist, Humanitarian, Philosopher
"An unforgettable personality whose courage shone with such crystal brilliance as to brighten the world about him and uplift the spirits of those even more fortunate, but not fashioned of such heroic fibre. His is a name to remember when the going get tough and the seductive voices of defeat sing their siren song."--Rogers, The Atlanta Journal. Born March 31, 1913, his life was spent in Toccoa. Despite crippling rheumatoid arthritis, he led an active, creative life as an internationally known silhouette artist, reporter and technical writer. His philosophy was "No person is handicapped unless he perceives himself to be". He received the Army-Navy E. Award in 1945, the same year the U.S. Department of State distributed the story of his life abroad. In 1954 he received the national Who's Crippled Award. His delicate silhouettes depicted people and events, but his most beautiful were of nature. His feeling for composition and sensitivity in artistic portrayal ranked him among the foremost silhouette artists of his day. Located in downtown Toccoa 0.8 mile north off North Pond Street-Henderson Falls Road to Henderson Falls Park.
Old Toccoa Falls Power Plant, The
The Old Toccoa Falls Power Plant is an outstanding example of the early hydroelectric generating facilities that served America's rural communities. Built in 1899 by E. Palmer Simpson of Toccoa, the plant was franchised in that year by the Toccoa City Council to supply the city and area with electricity. A log dam to provide headwater for the penstock at the the rear of the building formed a small lake on the mountain above the plant. The bricks were handmade -- swirls of the paddle can be clearly seen -- and then brought to the site in wagon loads that took two days each round trip. Water from the penstock spun the 200 kilowatt (266 horsepower) generator, and the electricity was distributed through the old switchboard. The plant was acquired by the Georgia Power Company in 1927; then in 1933 it was given to the Toccoa Falls Institute, which used the power exclusively to furnish all its electrical needs until 1957. At that time, the school returned to Company lines and the plant fell into disrepair. In 1972, the Georgia Power Company and the Institute cooperated in renovating the old plant in order that it can be maintained as a historical site. Acknowledgement is given to he vision and progressive contribution of Mr. P.S. Arkwright, founder and President of the Georgia Power Company and to Dr. R. A. Forrest, founder of the Toccoa Falls Institute. Located on the campus of Toccoa Falls College near the falls 2.8 miles from downtown - north.
Old Tugaloo Town
North of the marker, in the center of the lake, once stood an important Indian town. The area now marked by a small island was settled around 500 A.D. and occupied by Cherokee Indians around 1450. Traders were coming to the town by 1690. In 1716, while Col Maurice Moore treated with Charity Hague, Cherokee Conjuror, a group of Creek ambassadors arrived. The Creek Indians, supported by Spain and France, wished to drive the British from the Carolinas in the Yamassee War. The Cherokes killed the Creek ambassadors and joined the British. By 1717, Col Theopolis Hastings operated a trading center at Tugaloo where gunsmith, John Milbourne cared from Cherokee firearms. Indian agent, Col. Georgia Chicken visited Tugaloo in 1725 and described it as "...the most ancient town in these parts." Tugaloo remained a principal Cherokee town until destroyed by American patriots fighting these allies of the British in 1776. Located approximately 6 miles east of Toccoa on U.S. Highway 123 near Hartwell Lake. Standing at the Marker and looking north up the lake the old Tugaloo Indian Mound can be seen sticking out of the waters of the Hartwell Lake.
Red Hollow Road
Winding along a ridge from the mouth of Broad River to the head of Tugalo, RED HOLLOW ROAD evolved from the noted tract, UPPER CHEROKEE PATH, and became part of a complex pioneer road system. In 1736-1737, Oglethorpe had River Road laid out to Augusta from Savannah; it was Georgia’s first long road built by white men. At Augusta, River Road joined UPPER CHEROKEE PATH whose origins are lost in antiquity. From Augusta northward to Petersburg, the PATH became Petersburg Road. The PATH crossed not a single stream for approximately 70 miles between Petersburg and Toccoa. Continuing north through Amandaville, Eagle Grove, and Aquilla to a point near Martin, the PATH became RED HOLLOW ROAD. The ROAD intersected at Toccoa with Unicoi Turnpike, which ran into East Tennessee. The ROAD at Toccoa also had a spur. Locust Stake Road, which ran to the GA~ NC line. The track of Southern R.R. completed in 1878, cut RED HOLLOW ROAD 13 times between Toccoa and Martin including the station intersections at Hayes Crossing, Eastanollee and Avalon. Located 10.2 miles south of Toccoa on GA Highway 17 in Martin, GA at the intersection of GA Highway 17 and Red Hollow Road at the railroad crossing in front of the Martin Community Center.
This County, created by Act of the Legislature August 18, 1905, is named for Alexander Hamilton Stephens, Vice President of the Confederacy. A state legislator and Senator, he was elected to Congress at 31, serving from 1843 to 1859. Elected to the Senate in 1866 he was refused his seat but again served in Congress from 1873 to 1882 when he became Governor. He died March 4, 1883. Among the first County Officers were: Sheriff W. A. Stow, Clerk of Superior Court W. O. Bailey, Ordinary B. P. Brown, Jr., Tax Receiver M. C. Jouett, Tax Collector C. L. Mize, Treasurer C. M. Dance, Coroner Sidney Williams and Surveyor M. B. Collier. Marker Number 127-1 is located on the old historic Courthouse square south lawn in downtown Toccoa.
Stephens County High School
Eastanollee, GA ~ Organized officially in 1917 as Eastanollee High School, taking its name from the old Eastanollee School. A name of Indian origin meaning “a ledge of rocks across a stream.” In 1926, it became the county high school, and in 1929 its name was officially changed to Stephens County High School. The location of the marker is about six miles south of Toccoa on Ga Hwy 17 going toward I-85 and Lavonia. At the intersection of Ga Hwy 17 and Stephens Co. School Road turn west and
go one-half mile to the old campus and the marker is installed in front of the old school auditorium which still stands on the right side of Stephens Co. School Road.
Traveler's Rest- Old Tugaloo Town
Historic Traveler's Rest was built upon land granted to Major Jesse Walton in 1785. Indian killed Walton, a Revolutionary soldier and political leader, near here in 1789. The Walton family sold the land to James Rutherford Wyly who built the main part of the house between 1816 and 1825. Devereaux Jarrett bought the house on August 21, 1838. Jarrett added to the original structure and opened it to the public. Due to the growing population and increased through traffic the structure served as an inn, trading post, and post office. While the ten-room house was open to the public it entertained many illustrious travelers. The Jarrett account books, which doubled as hotel registers, contain the name of the English scientist and author, G. W. Featherstonehaugh, who stayed the night and ate breakfast for "a quarter of a dollar". While the Jarrett family owned the house that they called Jarrett Manor, Mrs. Mary Jarrett White, the last family owner, made history. She was the first woman in Georgia to vote. Historic Traveler's Rest is on the National Register of Historic Places and is a Georgia Historical Commission Site. Marker Number 127-5 is located 5.7 miles East of Toccoa on U.S. Highway 123, turn left onto Riverdale Road approximately 0.2 miles on right.
Tugalo Baptist Church and Cemetery
Tugalo Baptist Church, established before 1789, was first known as the Tugalo River Church. Founded by the Rev. John Cleveland, a Revolutionary Soldier. Tugalo is the oldest church in what was then Franklin County. The county covered an area in Georgia and South Carolina aobut the size of Rhode Islands. The church has been called "The Mother Church" of Baptist churches in this area. Cleveland was to become known as "The Father of Baptist Principles." He and the Rev. Thomas Gilbert represented Tugalo River Church when the Tugalo Baptist Association was formed in 1818. The land upon which the church stands was deeded to the church by Robert and Sarah (Wheeler) Craig, July 28, 1895, and both the church and cemetery have remained on their original sites since its founding. In the cemetery is the grave of Henry Fricks, who lived his life during three centuries. He was born in 1799 and died in 1901. This marker was erected by Tugalo Baptist Church and Stephens County Historical Society in 1984. Romans 8:31-39. Located east of Toccoa on U.S. 124 for 4.2 miles, turn right onto Red Rock Road, go approximately 1 mile. Turn left onto Oak Valley Road and go approximately 6 miles to dead end and turn left to Church.
The Unicoi Turnpike
The Unicoi Turnpike, first vehicular route to connect North Georgia and Tennessee with the head of navigation on the Savannah River system, passed here. Beginning on the Tugalo River to the east of Toccoa, the road led this way, thence across Nacoochee Valley, over the Blue Ridge through Unicoi Gap and past Murphy, N.C., to Nine Mile Creek near Maryville, Tenn. Permission to open the route as a toll road was given by the Cherokees in 1813 to a Company of white men and Indians. Tennessee and Georgia granted charters to the concern. Prior to its opening as a road, the way was part of a trading path from Augusta to the Cherokees of Tennessee. Marker Number 139-1 is located at the junction of U.S. 76, GA 75, 0.7 mile north of Presley.
Towns County was created by Act of March 6, 1856 from Rabun and Union Counties. It was named for George Washington Towns, Governor of Georgia from 1847-1851. Gov. Towns was born in Wilkes County, May 4, 1801, of a Virginia family. Self-educated, he was a merchant, lawyer, legislator, state senator, Congressman. He died in 1854. First officers of Towns County, commissioned April 21, 1856, were: Andrew I. Burch, Sheriff; Martin L. Burch, Clerk Superior Court; James H. Moore, Clerk Inferior Court Milton Brown, Tax Receiver; George M. Denton, Tax Collector; Robert S. Patton, Coroner; James Alston, Surveyor; John W. Holmes, Ordinary. Marker Number 139-2 located at the courthouse in Hiawassee.
Hiawassee River Basin
Along this river, a principal tributary of the Tennessee River flowing through Georgia, North Carolina and Tennessee, TVA has 3 reservoirs for power and flood control purposes. By its source in Unicoi Gap ran the Unicoi Turnpike to Great Echota, the ancient capital and sacred "Peace Town" of the Cherokee Nation. The Cherokees called the river Ayuhwa'si, meaning a savannah or meadow and applied the name to two or more settlements. Great Hiawassee was at Savannah Ford in Polk County, Tenn.; another was at the junction of the river and Peachtree Creek, in Cherokee County, N.C. Marker Number 139-3 is located at the Summit of Brasstown Bald.
The highest point in Georgia at 4,784 feet. The name is derived from the Cherokee word Itse'yi (New Green Place) or (Place of Fresh Green), from Itse'hi (green or unripe vegetation), and yi, the locative referring to its grassy, instead of timbered, summit. It occurs in several places in the old Cherokee country, variously spelled Echia, Echoee, Etchowee, and sometimes "Brasstown," from a confusion of Itse'yi with Untsayi' (brass). Early white settlers mistook the Indian name for a similar one meaning brass. According to Cherokee legend, there was once a great flood and all men died except a few Cherokee families who landed on top of Brasstown Bald in a giant canoe. The Great Spirit killed all the trees on top of the mountain so the survivors could plant crops and live until the flood subsided. The Whites knew of a Brasstown settlement, which was on Upper Brasstown Creek of Hiawassee River directly northwest of this point. The area near the spring to the southwest was once an Indian camping ground. Marker Number 139-4 is located on GA 66 and GA 75/GA 17 junction, 9 miles south of Hiawassee.
Track Rock Gap
The micaceous soapstone rocks bear ancient petroglyphs from which the Gap gets its name. The Cherokees called this place Datsu nalas gun yi, (where there are tracks), or Degayelunha, (Printed Place). of the many theories of the origin of the tracks held by the Cherokees, probably the most sensible is that they were made by the Indians for their own amusement. Another tradition is that they were made by a great army of birds and animals while the newly created earth's surface was still soft, to escape some pursuing danger from the west - some say a great "drive hunt" of the Indians.
Marker Number 144-1 is located 2.3 miles south of U.S. 76 on the paved road which turns south about six miles east of Blairsville.
Davenport Mountain in view to the east was named for John Davenport who came to this section in 1838. He built his 40-foot long log house 1/2 mi. to the east, over the peak of the mountain. It survived until removed in 1942 to make way for Nottely Lake. William Poteet came to this section about the same time and settled near the junction of Camp Creek and Nottely River. William and Hosea Thomas took up homesteads at the west about 7 yrs. Later, George Loudermilk built his home on Camp Creek. Thomas Lance, another pioneer, settled 4 mi. west at the foot of Lance Mountain. Marker Number 144-2 is located on the road circling south from Nottely Dam opposite Davenport Mountain.
With an elevation of 4458 feet, it is located in the Chattahoochee National Forest. In Cherokee mythology the mountain was one of the homes of the Nummehi or Immortals, the people Who Live Anywhere," a race of Spirit People who lived in great townhouses in the highlands of the old Cherokee Country. One of these mythical townhouses stood near Lake Trahlyta. As a friendly people they often brought lost hunters and wanderers to their townhouses for rest and care before guiding them back to their homes. Before the coming of white settlers, the Creeks and Cherokees fought a disastrous and bloody battle in Slaughter Gap between Slaughter and Blood Mountains. Marker Number 144-3 is located on Blood Mountain at end of a two-mile hiker's trail.
Nottely River Basin
One of the principal tributaries of the Hiawassee River, the Nottely River derives its name from the Cherokee word Na'du li', a former Cherokee settlement on the river, near the Georgia line, in Cherokee County, North Carolina. The upper slopes of this valley are in the Chattahoochee National Forest. Part of the first tract of land purchased by the United States under the Weeks law for flood control purposes can be seen on the horizon near Skeenah Gap. In 1912 Andrew and N. W. Gennett sold 32,000 acres - for the sum of $220,626.22. With this purchase the National Forests of the eastern United States were begun. Marker Number 144-4 is located on Brasstown Bald.
Union County was created by Act of Dec. 3, 1832, from Cherokee. Originally, it contained part of Fannin and Towns Counties. In 1832 there was much discussion over Union and States' rights. John Thomas, chosen by the people as a representative for the new County, when asked to suggest a name, is reported to have said, "Name it Union, for none but union-like men reside in it." First officers of Union County, commissioned March 20 1833, were: James Crow, Sheriff Arthur Gilbert, Clerk Superior Court Joseph Jackson, Clerk Inferior Court, James Gaddis, Sr., Coroner; Joseph Chaffin, Surveyor. Marker Number 144-5 is located at the Courthouse in Blairsville.
Homesite Of Joseph Emerson Brown
Joseph Emerson Brown (1821 -1894), born in Pickens District, South Carolina, moved to Union County, Georgia, as a boy. The old Brown home was on the present site of the Woody Gap School, and opened in 1941 for mountain students. Brown worked on his father's farm until he was nineteen, when he went to school in South Carolina. Returning to Georgia, he settled in Canton as head of the local academy. Admitted to the bar in 1845, Brown entered Yale Law School, practicing in Canton after graduating. In 1849, Brown became a State Senator. He was elected Governor, 1857, as the Democratic compromise candidate and reelected 1859, 1861, 1863. During the Civil War, Brown's extreme states' rights views conflicted with President Davis efforts to centralize the Confederate government. After the war, Brown, unpopular for affiliating with the Republican Party and advocating submission to Reconstruction, was defeated in the U.S. Senate race of 1868. Appointed Chief Justice of the Georgia Supreme Court, 1868, he remained on the bench until in 1870 he became President of the Western & Atlantic Co. After Georgia regained home rule, Brown returned to the Democratic Party and was appointed to the U.S. Senate in 1880. Reelected, he served until 1891. Marker Number 144-6 is located on GA 60 in Suches, in front of the Woody Gap School.
The Unicoi Turnpike
This road is the Old Unicoi Turnpike, first vehicular route to link East Tennessee, Western North Carolina and North Georgia with the head of navigation on the Savannah River system. Beginning on the Tugalo River, to the east of Toccoa, the road led this way, thence through Unicoi Gap and via Murphy, N. C. to Nine Mile Creek near Maryville, Tenn. Permission to open the way as a toll road was given by the Cherokees in 1813 to a Company of Indians and white men. Tennessee and Georgia granted charters to the concern. Prior to its establishment as a road, the trace was part of a trading path from Augusta to the Cherokees in East Tennessee. Marker Number 154-1 is located at junction of GA 75 and GA 17 at Nacoochee.
Nacoochee Indian Mound was the center of the ancient Cherokee town of Gauxule, visited by DeSoto in 1540 in his search for gold, according to legend. On this ceremonial mound, 190 feet long, 150 feet wide and 20 feet high, stood the Town House where a sacred fire burned unceasingly. Ceremonial dances were performed in and around the Town House. Residents of the town lived on the flat land surrounding the mound The findings of the Heye foundation archaeologists who explored the mound in 1915 indicate the advanced cultural development of the builders. Marker Number 154-2 is located on GA 75 about 100 yards south of GA 17.
White County, created by Act of Dec. 22, 1857, was cut off from Habersham and Lumpkin Counties. Wm. H. Shelton, Representative from Habersham at the session tried twice to have the county formed but failed. Repr. David T. White of Newton Co. backed the bill and it passed. In gratitude, Representative Shelton had the county named for Repr. White. First county officers were: Isaac Bowen, Sheriff; Wm. L. Sumpter, Clerk. Sup. Ct.; Wm. R. Kimsey, Clerk. Inf. Ct.; Willis A. England, Cor.; Wm. Burke, Tax Rec.; Champion Ferguson, Tax Col.; Vincent F. Sears, Surveyor; Wilkes T. Leonard, Ord.; J. Cicero Bell, Treasurer. Marker Number 154-3 is located at the Courthouse in Cleveland.
In 1857, when White County was formed, Mt. Yonah was selected as the county seat. The majority of its residents wished to rename it Sheltonville for William H. Shelton, who sponsored the formation of the new county. Shelton asked that it be named Cleveland for his good friend and mentor, Benjamin Cleveland, who served 6 terms as representative, 8 terms as senator from Habersham County and was Brigadier-General from 1820 to 1826. Built of hand-made brick by slave labor, the White County Courthouse in Cleveland is modeled after Independence Hall in Philadelphia. Marker Number 154-4 is located at the Courthouse in Cleveland.
On Sautee Creek just north of here are remains of a dam constructed as part of a gristmill owned by Edwin P. Williams. During the War Between the States, to arm the Home Guard, Governor Joseph E. Brown had made a great number of pikes, daggers on long poles, for close fighting. This mill was converted to the manufacture of Joe Brown Pikes". Though church bells and used iron were given for making the pikes, iron from a forge near Clarkesville was probably used here. After the war the mill was reconverted to grinding corn. Marker Number 154-5 is located on GA 17 at Sautee Creek.
At this point, just north of the safest ford in the Chattahoochee River, the first white settlers in this area built their campfires in 1822. A trading post was soon established on the sited Indian traded gold nuggets and gold dust to the settlers for merchandise. The first Nacoochee Post Office was established at the trading post with Charles Williams, son of one of the first settlers, serving as Postmaster for more than 50 years. To this same site in 1838 soldiers gathered the Indians from surrounding valleys and highlands to begin their "Trail of Tears" to the West. Marker Number 154-6 is located on GA 17 about 1 mile east of GA 75 and Nacoochee and north of Cleveland.
"Starlight" was built 1824-1830 of hand-hewn sills, handmade brick and hardware. Its builder, Major Edward Williams, wrote of his new home, "In comfort and convenience it would vie with some of the finest homes in Boston...I can convey as good spring water as ever ran to each or all of the rooms" by gravity in wooden pipes. Major Williams came to Nacoochee Valley from N.C. in 1822, purchased a large tract of land for $1 an acre, part payable in corn and wheat. After building a temporary home and planting he brought his family down in late 1823. He died in 1856, leaving his home to his daughter, Hannah Williams Starr, wife of Dr. E. F. Starr. "Starlight" became the name of the home after that. Marker Number 154-7 is located - GA 17 immediately east of ("Nacoochee Indian Mound" 154-6) (replaced by 154-10 because Starlight burned in 1959.
A Methodist Church has stood on this site since the early 1820's ever since the first white settlers built the first one in the Nacoochee Valley. Six acres of land to be used for the church and cemetery were deeded to the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1836 by Major Edward Williams at the death of his wife. Maj. Williams came to the Valley in 1822, purchased a large tract of land, built the home known as "Starlight" and lived there until his death in 1856. The first permanent building, with its gallery for slaves to worship with their masters, was painted white. Since that day the church has been known as the "White Church". Marker Number 154-8 is located at the Church on GA 17 between Nacoochee and Clarkesville.
Discovery Of Gold
Two people discovered gold in 1828
gold on Duke's Creek, White County. John
Witheroods of North Carolina found a 3-ounce nugget and a Negro servant of Major
Frank Logan of Loudsville, Georgia, also discovered gold on the creek. Early
discoveries came almost simultaneously as prospectors drifted into Northeast
Georgia from the North Carolina digging. One merchant in the Nacoochee Valley
purchased and shipped 1 to 1.5 million dollars worth of gold in a thirty-year
period. The pits visible along the creek are evidence of recent hydraulic
mining. Marker Number
154-9 is located on GA 75 approximately 5 to 6 miles north of Cleveland and
towards Helen. Marker is on right side going north on GA 75 and on south side of
Valley of the Evening Star
This valley has fascinated travelers, writers and artist. Indians and white men alike farmed this land for centuries. The valley was devastated by Spanish and American gold hunters and timber men and has been carefully nurtured by prosperous summer residents and progressive farmers. Three sources water the valley, the Sautee and Duke's Creek and the Chattahoochee River. These streams formed the rich alluvial soils, laced the soils with placer gold, and powered small industries. Longtime residents of the valley have been the Dyers, Glens, Hardmans, Lumsdens, Nichols, Richardsons and Williams. Marker Number 154-10 is located on SR 17 East of "Early Trading Post" 154-6.
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